Unfortunately, a disease like type 2 diabetes affects more and more people each year. In terms of mortality, it ranks second, only surpassed by oncology. The danger of such a disease is not only in constantly elevated glucose levels, but in the failure of almost all functions of the body.
"Sweet" disease is not treated, you can only minimize the risk of complications and avoid insulin-dependent type of diabetes. To normalize sugar levels, endocrinologists primarily prescribe a low-carbohydrate diet and regular exercise therapy. It turns out that diet and nutritional treatment of type 2 diabetes is the main and main therapy.
If with the help of diet therapy it is not possible to achieve the desired results, you need to start taking hypoglycemic drugs. It is also necessary to monitor blood counts with a glucometer at home.
Causes and symptoms
Diabetes refers to diseases of the endocrine system, when the level of sugar in the blood constantly rises. This is due to a decrease in the susceptibility of cells, as well as tissues, to the hormone insulin, which is produced by the pancreas.
It is noteworthy that the body produces this hormone in sufficient quantities, but the cells do not react with it. This condition is called insulin resistance.
There is no single, specific cause of type 2 diabetes, but doctors have identified risk factors, one of which is age 40. It is at this age that DM is often diagnosed. But this does not mean that the disease has developed dramatically. Most likely, the patient simply ignored the symptoms of prediabetes for many years, thus exhausting the body.
- dry mouth;
- slow healing of wounds and abrasions;
- frequent urge to go to the bathroom;
- rapid fatigue;
If at least one of the symptoms is manifested, it is recommended to visit an endocrinologist for analysis in order to exclude or confirm the presence of an ailment. The diagnosis is quite simple: the delivery of venous and capillary blood. If you know the symptoms and the treatment will be effective.
Diabetes is more common in the following categories of people:
- age over 40 years;
- overweight by type of abdomen;
- malnutrition, when light carbohydrates (sweets, flour products) predominate in the diet;
- sedentary lifestyle without adequate physical activity;
- High blood pressure;
- the presence of diabetes in relatives.
When treating a "sweet" disease, it is necessary to strictly follow a diet aimed at lowering blood glucose.
>A correctly formulated therapeutic diet, together with moderate physical activity, will become the main treatment for diabetes. One of the main rules is not to starve and not to overeat. The number of meals is six times a day. Last supper at least a few hours before going to bed.
Type 2 diabetes Diet and nutritional therapy stabilize blood sugar levels. Up to half of the daily diet should be vegetables. Also, the daily menu should include cereals, fruits, meat or fish and dairy products.
The body of a diabetic suffers from a lack of vitamins and minerals. This is due to a failure in metabolic processes, not just the endocrine system. That is why it is so important to eat a balanced diet.
From the above, the main principles of the diet can be distinguished:
- small meals, six times a day;
- minimum fluid intake - two liters;
- do not starve and do not overeat;
- dinner should be light, it is worth limiting yourself to a glass of fermented milk product or 150 grams of cottage cheese;
- fruits should be included in breakfast;
- in the preparation of vegetable dishes use only seasonal products;
- choose products according to the GI.
All diabetic foods should have a low glycemic index. Endocrinologists adhere to this indicator when compiling dietary therapy.
In addition to observing the principles of nutrition, one should not forget about the permissible heat treatment, which is aimed at the absence of bad cholesterol in dishes.
Cooking is allowed in the following ways:
- for a couple;
- in the microwave;
- bake in the oven;
- in a multicooker;
- braised, using a small amount of vegetable oil.
It is necessary to separately study the concept of GI and learn on your own how to form a diet based on personal taste preferences.
After all, the choice of products for diabetics is quite wide and allows you to cook a lot of healthy dishes.
GI of products in diet therapy
The glycemic index is a measure that reflects the effect of a certain food after eating it in raising blood sugar levels. Products with a low GI contain carbohydrates of complex digestion, which are not only necessary for the patient, but also give him a feeling of satiety for a long time.
Diabetics need to choose among those food categories that have a low GI. Foods with an average indicator can be in the diet only occasionally - no more than twice a week. Products with a high GI can raise the glucose level to 4 mmol/l in a fairly short period of time.
The glycemic index of foods is divided into three categories. But in addition to this value, you need to pay attention to the calorie content of food. So, some foods have a value of zero units, but at the same time they contain bad cholesterol and are high in calories.
A brilliant will take fat, which does not contain carbohydrates and has 0 units, but it is categorically contraindicated for diabetics. GI division:
- 0 - 50 units - low;
- 50 - 69 units - medium;
- more than 70 units - tall.
There is a special table of products with indices to make it easier for the patient to create a menu for himself. Some products after heat treatment can significantly increase the index - these are beets and carrots. Raw are allowed, but boiled under prohibition.
Therapeutic diet allows you to cook dishes from such vegetables:
- all varieties of cabbage: white and red, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, broccoli;
- green beans and asparagus;
- green peas;
Many people are used to having potatoes on their table. But with a "sweet" disease, it is better to refuse it because of the high GI. In very rare cases, when it is still decided to use the tubers, they must be pre-soaked in water overnight. Thus, you can get rid of starch and slightly reduce the index.
Vegetables for a diabetic are a source of vitamins, microelements and fiber. They prepare not only fresh salads, but also side dishes, as well as complex dishes. It is allowed to diversify the taste qualities with vegetables: spinach, lettuce, oregano, basil, dill and parsley.
Fruits are an equally important component of the diet. The permissible daily norm should not exceed 150 - 200 grams. Fruits, even with a low index, cannot be squeezed. With this treatment, they lose fiber and glucose quickly enters the bloodstream.
When dieting, the following fruits and berries are allowed:
- black and red currants;
- all varieties of citrus: orange, lemon, grapefruit, tangerine, pomelo and lime;
- sweet cherry;
There are many valuable substances in dried fruits, no more than 50 grams per day is allowed. Dried fruits are good to add to cereals, thus creating a complete meal plate. Low GI nuts: dried apricots, prunes and figs.
Meat, organ meats, fish and shellfish are also part of the daily menu. At the same time, fish must be present at least three times in the weekly diet. Choose lean meats and fish. The skin and the remnants of fat are removed from them, in which there are no vitamins, but only bad cholesterol.
Endocrinologists recommend the following products:
- Rabbit meat;
- Chicken's liver;
- cow liver;
- beef tongue;
- beef lungs
There are no restrictions on the choice of seafood. From the fish you can choose haddock, hake, pike or perch.
Cereals are a source of energy, so they give you a feeling of satiety for a long time. Some of them have a high GI, particularly white rice. Your alternative will be brown rice, whose GI is 50 units. It takes a little longer to cook, about 45 minutes.
Barley is considered the most valuable cereal, its GI is only 22 units. Other types of cereals are also allowed:
- barley grits;
- wheat porridge
By the way, the thicker the porridge, the lower its index.
There are few restrictions on dairy and sour milk products. All of them are based on the fat content of the products. Therefore, it would be rational to refuse sour cream, margarine and butter.
If with the help of diet therapy it is not possible to achieve the desired results, the doctor is forced to prescribe hypoglycemic drugs. Your choice in the pharmaceutical market is wide.
Self-medication is prohibited, since all pills have their own side effects. Only an endocrinologist can choose the right pills for the patient, taking into account the characteristics of his body and the course of the disease.
The purpose of hypoglycemic drugs is to stimulate the pancreatic cells to increase the production of the hormone insulin so that it is in the blood in the required amount.
If in this case it is not possible to normalize the blood glucose level, the therapy includes several groups of hypoglycemic tablets.
In the presence of type 2 diabetes, treatment should include feasible physical activity. This serves as an excellent compensation for high sugar levels.
That is, when playing sports in the body, all metabolic processes are accelerated, and glucose is absorbed faster.
You should spend at least half an hour a day on this lesson. If you can't practice every day, you need to at least walk outdoors on foot for forty minutes.
You can choose the following types of physical activity for type 2 diabetics:
- Nordic walking;
- sport walking;
If a person wants to study at home, there are many video courses on the Internet dedicated specifically to diabetics.
If the training is carried out outside the home, and after them there is a feeling of hunger, it is allowed to make an additional meal - a snack. An ideal option would be 50 grams of nuts, which contain nutritious proteins, have a low GI and perfectly combat appetite. Just do not exceed the permissible daily amount, since such a product is high in calories.
From all of the above, it should be concluded that the manifestation of diabetes can be minimized using only two rules: following the principles of dietary therapy for diabetes and regular exercise.